Classification and characteristics of basalt fibers and products on their basis

Basalt fibers are an initial product for manufacturing various materials which are applied in power, metallurgy, a petroleum-refining industry, on transport, in mechanical engineering, shipbuilding, the chemical industry, construction, aircraft and astronautics, cryogenic technics, the porcelain industry, manufacture of a paper, defensive branches.

Basalt fibers are biologically neutral material, and products from these fibers nonflammable and not explosive. Basalt composites can replace many traditionally used materials. Service life of products from basalt fibers, without deterioration of technical properties, exceeds 50 years. The main advantages of basalt fibers are:

  • low heat conduction coefficient + 0,038 W/m•K;
  • temperature of application from - 260 ° to + 900 °;
  • high insensible for vibrations;
  • incombustibility and fire safety;
  • high chemical stability in alkaline and acid medium;
  • low hygroscopic property;
  • environmental safety.

High physicotechnical properties of fibers from rocks allow to create and master manufacture highly effective building, technical, heatsoundproof, composite materials and products for various industries.

On the basis of staple basalt fibers the assortment new effective basalt plastic materials for heat insulation thermal units, machines that enables essentially is issued to raise their technical and economic characteristics. Increase of efficiency heat insulation enables to raise stability of technological processes. Besides power expenses that allows to reduce the cost price of let out production decrease, working conditions improve.

Effective isolation of different objects enables to increase service life of isolated products. However, technical and economic characteristics heat insulation products depend on density and thickness heat insulation a layer. Except for it efficiency basaltfibrous isolation depends on quantity and the size of times a insulating material, and also diameter of a fiber as diameter of a fiber, defines not only the size of times, and material capacity of isolation.

The basic characteristic heat insulation a material is heat conductivity as transfer of heat at presence of a gradient of temperature, and is caused by thermal movement of particles. The size of transfer of heat in a superfine material is a parameter of set heat- and the mass-transfer processes proceeding in materials, and depends on intensity of course of such processes.

Efficiency of these processes define thermalphysic properties basaltfibrous materials in view of their mechanical structure, porosity and the chemical nature of a fiber. Prominent feature of mechanical structure staple basalt fibers consists that fibers are in a chaotic arrangement. Therefore between fibers there are different layers in the form of times of different size and a different arrangement.

Low heat conductivity ultra- and superthin basalt staple fibers is caused by their advanced surface that creates significant set of the times interfering convection and thermal radiation of gases. Low heat conductivity of the material of basalt also creates preconditions to increase heat insulation properties heat insulation.

Application of cast basalt porous products with the closed times enables receptions of strong, easy products heat insulation purposes of various dimensions and configurations. And performance of knitted products from a continuous basalt fibre enables to make highly effective sound-proof products.

Considering thermostability of basalt fibers, and also smoothness of their surface at their simultaneously high durability, there is an opportunity to apply them for a filtration of high-temperature gases, liquids and even melts. In a kind low diathermancy of basalt melts, products from this material can be applied and in other areas, for example, in products of space purpose, in isolation of a surface of space devices, in other areas of technics.

The important characteristic of materials are sound-proof properties. It is possible to assume, that, having advanced porous structure and a chaotic arrangement of fibers, basaltfibrous materials possess good enough sound absorption. By researches it is established, that sound-proof properties basaltfibrous materials depend on frequency of a sound, thickness of a layer of a fiber, its density and other factors. For average and high frequencies investigated fibers have more effective sound-proof properties, than for low.

Basalt fibers without destruction maintain sterilization sharp the ferry.

Classification of basalt fibers and products

Apparently from the scheme, on the basis of basalt fibers the greater scale of products is issued. On the basis of basalt staple fibers (thin, superthin) cords, cardboards, a paper and broaching materials are issued heat-insulated plates. Use 1 stere the above-stated materials allows to save nearby 1 ton conditional fuel in a year.

Owing to use basaltfibrous loading, are created effective vibro sound-absorbing mastics and sheet coverings which have found application in a special equipment, motor industry, building-road technics, medical apparatus, etc.

Basalt fibers have found application for reception of artificial substrata of cultivation of plants in conditions of the protected ground, and also in ecologically closed systems. Distinctive features of the received materials are absence powder separation, improvement of agrotechnical properties.

Basalt fibers have effectively proved to be by development of the coverings, allowing to carry out protection of a surface of materials of the various chemical nature against complex influence of adverse factors, the microbiological and chemical corrosion, the raised temperatures, vibrating and using up loadings.

Thus, use of fibers from rocks allows to create new perspective materials and technologies.

Application of basalt fibres and materials on their basis

From basalt fibres it is possible to make many materials of various types, versions. Continuous basalt fibres, basalt superthin, thin and rough fibres, basalt scales. Due to the characteristics and properties have extraordinary wide prospect of application in construction and various industries.

Building

Building constructional and facing plastics; reinforcing plaster grids; warmed panels for prefabricated houses and designs of overlappings, false ceilings, fireproof walls, fire-resistant doors, building plastics (continuous, superthin and thin fibres, broaching materials, insulating board).

Basalt-plastic armature for construction of bridges, tunnels, cross ties of railways, the underground, constructional materials (continuous fibres).

Reinforcing materials : by manufacture asphalt coat of roads, runways air stations, road grids (continuous and rough fibres, basalt-plastic armature).

Waterproofing materials (rolled and sheet), roofing materials. Hydraulic engineering construction- reinforcing materials for construction of dams, materials for irrigation the grounds (continuous thicker staple fibres).

Fire-prevention materials for construction of high-altitude houses and crucial industrial constructions (piercing canvases, cardboards, plates from staple thin and superthin fibres).

Construction of port constructions, sea platforms - reinforcing and constructional materials from basalt-plastic (continuous and rough basalt fibres, armature).

Paint and varnish proof anticorrosive coverings bridges, the tunnels, crucial designs and constructions, waterproofing coverings of ferro-concrete designs. Nonflammable and heat-resistant paint and varnish coverings (scales).

Manufacture of ceramics, porcelain, building materials - heat insulation of furnaces and the equipment by manufacture ceramic and porcelain products (utensils, vases, sanitary products, etc.), furnaces for manufacture of a brick, ceramic bar, cement (a cardboard and plates on the basis of basalt superthin fibres, piercing products).

Mechanical engineering - composite materials, constructional materials, the designs working in conditions the higher vibrations, sign-variable loadings, grids for reinforcing detachable disks, sound-proof materials, heat insulation the thermal equipment. Filters of clearing of departing gases from a dust and industrial drains, a product frictional purpose, vibroacoustic coverings (continuous, superthin and thin staple fibres, basalt-plastic, woven and nonwoven materials).

Motor industry - composite materials, heatacoustic material for manufacture automobile mufflers, panels, thermal linings, screens, plastics, reinforcing material for manufacture wheel chocks and disks of coupling, constructional plastics, nonflammable composite materials, a cord for automobile tire covers, the cut fibres for reinforcing plastic, vibroacoustic materials. Materials for manufacturing fuel tanks, cylinders of the compressed natural gas. Anticorrosive, with great dispatch and wearproof coverings of the bottoms of automobiles.

Shipbuilding - composite materials proof to influence of sea water, heat-acoustic ship installations, the equipment, heat-acoustic plates for cases of the ships, constructional materials. Small shipbuilding - designs of cases of courts, superstructures. corrosion-proof, the reinforced paint and varnish coverings of cases of the ships, ship superstructures (continuous fibres, plates and cardboards on basis BSTF).

Railway transportation - composite constructional materials and products, heat-acoustic cars, reinforcing of constructional plastics, nonflammable composite materials, electric insulating materials, Proof paint and varnish coverings, reinforcing materials for manufacture wheel chock and disks of coupling (continuous fibres, plates on the basis of basalt superthin fibres and clay binding, basalt-plastic).

The aviation industry and rocket production - heatacoustic mats, trim flew down or siliceous fabric for heatacoustic insulation engines and a fuselage, constructional composite and high-temperature materials (basalt superthin fibres, basalt-plastic).

Power - composite materials, heat insulation the thermal equipment of steam boilers, turbines, heating mains, high-voltage electrical insulation materials (continuous fibres, canvases from basalt superthin staple fibres, a plate from BSTF on clay binding).

Atomic engineering - nonflammable heat insulation and constructional materials, fire-prevention doors, etc., materials for radioactive protection, containers for storage of radioactive waste products (piercing products from basalt superthin staple fibres, continuous and rough fibres, plates).

Electronic industry - reinforcing a material for manufacture of payments, electrical insulation materials, constructional materials of cases of the electronic equipment.

The chemical industry - manufacture of chemically proof materials and products: pipes, capacities for storage of aggressive liquids, acids, alkalis, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, poisonous substances. Chemically proof sheetings of capacities, pipelines, metalware, ferro-concrete designs.

Filters clearing of a dust, filtration of industrial drains, high-temperature filters.

The petrochemical and gas industry - chemically and wearproof sheetings of capacities, pipelines, oil pipelines. Basalt heat insulation sound-proof materials of compressor stations on downloading gases. Nonflammable coverings and composite materials. Firesafe composite materials. Heatacoustic insulation and firesafe overlappings on floating oil-and-gas producing platforms.

Metallurgy - heat insulation materials of the thermal equipment, furnaces, recuperators, pipelines, communications. Filters for clearing departing gases of a dust at ore dressing and metallurgical combines, filters of sewage treatment.

Cryogenic technics and the equipment - heat insulation materials by manufacture of the liquefied gases, liquid oxygen, nitrogen, etc.

An agriculture - geogrids and geotextiles for strengthening soil, capacities for storage and transportations of liquid chemical fertilizers and pesticides, basalt-plastic overlappings, racks and other constructional products at a construction of cattle-breeding complexes. Basalt-plastic racks for cultivation of a grapes. A material for hydroponics at cultivation of bacterial cultures, sprouts of plants, etc.

A municipal services - materials for clearing constructions, pipes of the big diameter for water delivery and sewage. Filters for thin clearing air and liquid environments, municipal drains, clearing constructions, and others.

Home appliances - sanitary composite products, thermo-insulation gas and electric cases, ovens, electric furnaces, etc.
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